Are Environmental Conservation Strategies Misguided?

If you like this essay, share it with others


Some of the essays that are presented in this blog site communicate a deep concern over the negative impact of human beings on Nature. The information sources that support these essays predict the destruction of the human race within the next 50 years unless humanity is able to make a significant change in the relationship between human beings and Nature. This point of view is presented by many experts and is well documented in great detail in the book by Lester R. Brown  entitled “Plan B – Mobilizing To Save Civilization”. You can download a free copy of this book.


The warnings that are outlined in the “Plan B” book seem to go unheeded by much of the human population. This includes people who are professional and volunteer stewards of Nature who profess allegiance to one of two conservation strategies. This essay presents a brief summary of these two conservation strategies and suggests that neither strategy will conserve and preserve a Nature that will support the lives of all creatures on Earth, including mankind.


Current conservation strategies do not protect Nature from humanity’s misguided worldview


In 1985,the well respected Michael Soule published a paper entitled What Is Conservation Biology? Soule proposed a conservation strategy that supports designated human-free and/or highly regulated tracts of land to protect Nature from mankind. This strategy is sometimes called “Fortress Conservation” because it is designed to protect Nature from humans.


Soule’s conservation strategy sets humans apart from Nature and fails to recognize that humanity has already negatively impacted almost every square inch of our Earth.


In 2012, Peter Kareiva, then chief scientist of the Nature Conservancy, and Michelle Marvier published a second conservation strategy in the Bioscience journal entitled What Is Conservation Science?. This paper suggests that humans are part of Nature’s ecosystems and their economic and social interests must be considered when conservation strategies are formulated. The authors summarize their new views on conservation science by stating:


We offer a revised set of core principles in light of the changed global context for conservation. Most notably, scientists now widely acknowledge that we live in a world dominated by humans, and therefore, the scientific underpinnings of conservation must include … paying better attention to human rights and equity. We argue that in conservation, strategies must be promoted that simultaneously maximize the preservation of biodiversity and the improvement of human well-being.”


These papers by Soule and Kareiva set the stage for an intense dialog within conservation science that is documented in a paper entitled “The Battle For The Soul Of Conservation Science. According to the the “Plan B” book mentioned earlier in this blog essay, neither strategy seems to be stemming the tide of human beings that are acting as if there are infinite resources available on a finite planet. The promoters of these two conservation strategies don’t focus on a solution that would prevent the grim disaster that might be facing human beings in two generations. Indeed, Peter Kareiva, in subsequent essays,  offers questionable assurances that the “Plan B” scenario will never happen because human ingenuity and technology will prevail.


Political will always seems to be a part of scientific endeavors. New policies of the Trump administration threaten to interfere with the conservation of Nature in the United States. Trump’s secretary of the Interior, Ryan Zinke, is wielding destructive power and influence over conservation strategies in the United States. Zinke is highly unqualified for the job of protecting and preserving Nature. He is a politician and a former Navy seal with apparently no training or experience in biology or ecology. Michael Brune, executive director of the Sierra Club, describes Zinke as a “fraud”.


The Guardian reports that Zinke:

“…meticulously crafts his image as wilderness-loving western cowboy and sportsman. But nine months into his job at the Department of the Interior, the federal agency that oversees most public lands and natural resources, … demonstrate strong allegiance to the oil, gas and other extractive industries seeking access to some of America’s most spectacular protected landscapes. [Zinke] has reversed an Obama-era ban on coal mining on public lands, and proposed changes that would shrink the borders of four national monuments set aside by previous presidents. His agency has taken early steps to open the door to oil exploration in Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge – one of the most symbolic and fiercely protected sites of the American environmental movement. He’s announced plans to repeal an important fracking safety rule, and loosened safety guidelines for underwater drilling, both major shifts away from Obama-era environmental protection regulations.”


In both Kareiva’s and Soule’s conservation strategies, as well as the questionable political efforts of Ryan Zinke, no mention is made of the fundamental fact that Nature is an interdependent, living system of energy flow conduits that transport and transform the necessary energy of life to all living organisms on Earth. By embracing the idea that our planet is a living system and by devising conservation strategies that focus on the identification, the protection and the preservation of the networks contained within these living systems, the concerns of Kareiva, Soule, and other ecologists would be addressed.


Another scientist, Kevin McCann, in a 2007 article in Nature, said:


Scientists have focused on diversity at the expense of ignoring the biological structures that maintain ecosystems – networks of interactions between organisms that characterize ecosystems. The network of interactions between organisms breathes life into ecosystems. Perhaps the main reason why researchers and Nature’s stewards within government organizations have focused on diversity is that it is easier to count species than to document their interactions. Empirically mapping biological networks is no small chore.


The goal of any conservation program should be to protect biostructure by defining an ecosystem’s energy flow network structure and conserving the energy flow within that network. For anyone who is charged with the responsibility of conserving an ecosystem, the primary  question one must ask when faced with a request that might impact Nature is: How does current activity or a proposed action affect the energy flow of the ecosystem under question?


McCann’s description of energy flow networks contains the elements of a conservation strategy that holds great promise for reducing or eliminating the crisis that humanity will be facing in the near future. All conservation strategies need to center around the identification, the understanding, and the preservation of energy flow conduits in Nature. I know of no disagreement with the fact that Nature’s energy flow defines life. By preserving Nature’s energy flow, we preserve life and the home in which all earthly creatures live – including ourselves. This approach to conservation also transforms the human race into a sustainable species that accepts its interdependence with all other creatures on Earth. The  key question then becomes: “are interdependent energy flow networks being conserved in the proposals offered by Soule and Kareiva?” Neither author answers that question? But, by protecting Nature’s energy flow, the land tracts defined in Soule’s arguments will be protected.


An effective conservation strategy must protect Nature’s energy flow


I submit that a powerful conservation strategy should be the definition, the understanding, the protection, and the preservation of Nature’s energy flow conduits – Her connections. By focusing on this conservation strategy, Nature’s life blood, her flow of energy, is maintained. When we protect these energy flow networks, we let Nature do her own thing. We humans no longer need to vainly try to control Nature or make predictions that are mere guesses at best. This strategy requires the human race to view Nature as a living system upon which we humans depend for our own lives. We need to acquire a systems worldview – a “connectivity consciousness”.


Human survival will depend upon a renaissance of ecological ethics and literacy driven by environmental educators, and backed by good science. This renaissance must instill in humans, both youth and adults, a consciousness of interdependence with Nature. These interdependent processes are manifested from the biological structures which are the energy flow networks described by McCann. Interdependency in Nature is a scientific fact. Interdependency is the core process in Nature that defines life. It is this core process that needs to be conserved by humans.


A “connectivity consciousness” is a sense that can be developed within we humans. This consciousness addresses how and why everything is interrelated. This consciousness also provides an internal map of how to act when addressing ecological issues. With a “connectivity consciousness”, humans are equipped to ask the right questions when approaching any ecological issue. Those questions are:


• What are the conduits of energy flow that exist in the ecosystem under study and how can these energy conduits be preserved?

• What might happen if changes are made to these conduits either by mankind or by Nature?


To most people, I would assume that all of this sounds really great. But, a huge problem stands in the way of these good things. That huge problem is human beings. How do we convince the human race that it does not control Nature? We cannot rely on Peter Kareiva’s speculation that technology will somehow control Nature for us. Gus Speth, a US advisor on climate change, said:


I used to think that top environmental problems were biodiversity loss, ecosystem collapse and climate change. I thought that thirty years of good science could address these problems. I was wrong. The top environmental problems are selfishness, greed and apathy, and to deal with these we need a cultural and spiritual transformation. And we scientists don’t know how to do that.”


Scientist Joe Hutto, in his book “The Light In High Places”, offers his perspective:


It is not the greed of multinational corporations with their vicious bulldozers, chain saws, and oil rigs that consume resources, but rather individuals like you and me creating these insatiable demands. The real problem is our many nonnegotiable needs for fuel, transportation, our modest twelve-hundred-square-foot houses, and worse, the incessant demand for industrially grown food that requires the proliferation of strip mines, chemical companies, and the mind boggling complexity of the energy and transportation networks. Each of us standing on the brink of our own individual crisis fuels these insatiable demands”


In addition to ignoring an exponential and unsustainable human population growth, humans have come to believe that they can predict and control Nature. With this belief comes the false idea that humans are not dependent upon anything. The quotes by Gus Speth and Joe Hutto suggest that conservation is a people problem and not some technical issue to solve.


An effective conservation strategy is environmental education


I submit that one of the most important conservation strategies that we humans can implement is environmental education programs that build a human consciousness for Nature and Her interdependent character. The emphasis is on the fact that our earth is an interdependent living system that consists of networks of energy flow conduits.


Unfortunately, this systems worldview of life fails to resonate with many current conservation practices which assume that human input will achieve a predictable result. Conservation managers set goals and reference points for killing so many wolves or deer or other creatures based on the assumption that equilibrium or a steady state will be achieved. This idea is blatantly false because Nature’s equilibria and steady states are constantly changing. The assumption that mankind can control Nature is also false. Indeed, Nature’s living systems are dynamic. They are always moving. Equilibrium shifts as Nature’s feedback systems adjust. Human predictability is impossible. Consequently, current conservation practices will ultimately be ineffective.

Our future on this planet depends on our moral and ethical values

The future of this life-supporting planet of ours is dependent on our moral and ethical values and a deeper understanding of the intricate relationship we have with the natural world. Moral and ethical values are guidelines that originate from scientific fact. The fundamental facts of life are that:


  • Nature sustains life by creating and nurturing communities. No individual organism, including mankind, can exist in isolation.
  • Life, from its beginning more than three billion years ago, did not take over the planet by combat but by networking.
  • Diversity assures resilience and survival.
  • Energy driving the ecological cycles flows from the sun.
  • Matter cycles continually through the web of life.
  • One species’ waste is another species’ food.
  • Each species in an ecosystem helps to sustain the entire food web.


All of this means that we need to teach our children, our students, and our corporate and political leaders, these  fundamental facts of life. Together plants,animals, and microorganisms regulate the entire biosphere and maintain the conditions conducive to life. Sustainability, then, is not an individual property but a property of an entire web of relationships. The way to sustain life is to build and nurture community.

The goal of environmental education is to restore the relationship between humans and Nature.


There are two keys to successful environmental education programs. The first is an emphasis on hands-on, place-based experiential teaching methods where students get out of the classroom go into Nature. George Schaller, recognized by many as the world’s preeminent field biologist, says:


I console myself that natural history remains the cornerstone of conservation, that it must be learned on the ground, asking questions, observing, listening, taking notes, getting the boots muddy.”


The second key to successful environmental education is an emphasis on legacy where students become the influencers and teachers of their parents and the next generation.  The Nature Conservancy (TNC) sponsors an urban environmental education program called LEAF. TNC reports that:


“Many former LEAF interns have continued with their passion for conservation, and are now working in the field as national park rangers, environmental engineers, environmental science teachers, and in careers helping to connect future generations to nature at some of the world’s largest environmental organizations. Over 30 percent of surveyed LEAF alumni go on to pursue environmental careers, and over 50 percent volunteer for environmental causes in their communities.”


It is both a consciousness for an interconnected and interdependent Nature and the building of a legacy that needs to be emphasized by our environmental educators. Environmental education programs must teach more than scientific fact about objects. These programs must also focus on on both relationships within the human race and relationships in Nature.


There are solutions to the major problems of our time. The key goal of environmental education is to restore the relationship between humans and Nature. Systems thinking and ecological literacy are two key world views that must be part of a new paradigm that portrays the vital interconnections between food, health, and the environment. This profound transformation in the global thinking of all humans is needed for humanity to survive.


Why Do I Write These Essays?

Nothing in Nature exists in isolation. The movement of life’s energy, which originates in the sun, takes place because everything is interconnected and interdependent. Your consciousness of interdependence in Nature means that, every time you engage Nature, you ask yourself how a creature, a plant, yourself, or a natural object is connected to another and to Nature’s greater scheme of things. With this awareness you are prepared to protect Nature’s environment that sustains you. And, you create your legacy by encouraging others to do likewise.


If, after reading my essays, you find yourself embracing these ideas, I am thrilled in knowing that I’ve played some small part in setting this world view in motion in your mind.


Please Comment and Subscribe

I invite you to subscribe to my newsletter using the sign-up form provided at the upper right corner of this web page. As a subscriber you will receive regular email announcements of new essays that I publish or popular essays that i have previously published. In these essays you will have the opportunity to share comments and ideas about a topic. Your security is important to me. Please know that your email address is never distributed to anyone.


You are strongly encouraged to become one of my 11,000+ followers on Twitter. My Twitter ID is @ballenamar . With Twitter, in addition to receiving daily Tweets that announce my essays, you will see when I retweet something that I read and that I think is important.


My name is Bill Graham. As a Marine Biologist who has worked in the US and Mexico for 30 years, I am a student of Nature, a teacher, a researcher, and a nature photographer. Through my work, I have acquired an ever growing passion for how everything in Nature is connected. Today, I travel extensively contemplating about, writing about, and photographing Nature’s connections. I also work with conservation projects in the USA and Mexico and mentor talented youth.

10 thoughts on “Are Environmental Conservation Strategies Misguided?”

    1. Hi Roger: Thanks for your insightful comment. While I agree with you that “influence” is an important strategy as long as it is guided by a solid, healthy, and adequately informed environmental consciousness. I wish there were a better word than “influence” because so many humans see influence and control an synonymous. Those of us who study systems science know that it is physically impossible to predict, control, or positively influence Nature. Since Nature is a “complex system”, there is no way that the results of our “influence” can be predicted — much less controlled. Almost all the conservation programs/philosophies that I have read about simply fail to see this scientific fact. This include the two main schools of thought that are currently in vogue.

      1. Thanks for your answer. Education is a must, for sure, but informed action seems needed as well. What do you think about positive steps to restore connectivity? (replacing “influence” with “positive steps”!)

        1. Hi Roger: I like your words “positive steps” very much. Thank you for the suggestion. Somewhere in my essays I have offered a plan of action (positive steps) that includes (1) hands on, place-based environmental education that builds a legacy of environmental consciousness and (2) suggested steps for conservation workers at include (a) Identify all energy flow conduits in the ecosystem under study by creating/studying a energy flow web diagram and (b) provide the means to protect each one of the conduits that have been identified. I am very grateful to you for your comments and your suggestions.

  1. This is what I will teach my grandsons. They come out here from Austin and we work on the land, restoring a native prairie that feeds a lot of critters but can’t support the overshot herd of deer that come through here, so I restore it, and feed them corn mixed with elk feed or goat chow for protein. We only have about an acre, but it’s where the doe come to have their fawns, and Mom leaves them here until they can jump the fence. Very smart strategy. Herd animals, the fawns want to follow Mom and the others, but if they can’t jump fences, they’re an easy meal for a predator, like the dogs that run loose. We avoid hand feeding, needing them to stay wild.

    We have at least one cougar, and jumping the fence probably isn’t an escape from that critter if it’s hungry. I’ve only seen a tail going into the underbrush. I don’t push it. We both know the other’s here. I feel it sometimes when I walk at night. Not really fear, but the knowledge that a meeting on its terms would be brutal.

    The deer come here to die, too, and we have a place where the buzzards can make profit from the death. In two nights, it’s nothing but bones picked clean. One creature is another’s meal. Indeed.

    The grandsons understand cycles – the deer poop, rain washes the poop into the prairie thatch, the seeds of the plants the deer ate make food, the deer eat, the deer poop.

    We live just above the riparian corridor of the Blanco River (where humans shouldn’t live, but my wife had this rock house), and we feed a lot of the critters that lost their habitats in the ’15 flood, an awful thing carrying off giant cypress trees. No one who saw that said humans could control nature. Houses were torn off their slabs. A few slabs made it across the Highway 12 bridge. A house with nine people in it went over the bridge. Flood crest record went from 29 feet to 44 feet. We don’t know who all of the critters who eat here – my wife wanted to get rid of the prairie rats that live here until she got it that critters ate them. Some critters only come at night. I’ve seen the foxes. I hear them come out of the trees, landing on my tin roof then running across while I write fiction (I got a MFA in fiction writing after my BA). Some of the critters liked our garden produce so we have to protect our crop.

    Howard Odum was a pioneer, I think, of energy ecology- systems ecology, he called it, and energy’s sacred, the way it moves through a system, animating everything it passes through.

    My BA included an emphasis called “Environmental Art and Education,” but I’ve only taught it informally, in nature, and you’ve taught me that’s how it should be taught. One of my classes was “Sacred Trees,” and I was a Houston city guy, a Green who thought I knew something about ecology from the Ecological Wisdom Key Value but had only a clue of a clue. I learned to listen to trees and hear their often sad stories. I listened to a 400 year old Valley Oak who lived where humans made a lake and it couldn’t get its feet dry so it was dying. Half of it had fallen off and it was still big. More than that, though, it was lonesome for its grove mates, all gone. I’d sit out there with it, crying, and people must have thought I was crazy. That’s okay with me. It’s true.

    I also practice shamanism (Foundation for Shamanic Studies) that helps me more than anything to deal with the 3 mental illnesses that came home with me from Vietnam. My work for 16 years was to stay numb. The nature spirits are good to me, and it’s a bonus to be as wounded as I am. I get a lot of breaks.

    The fundamental facts of life you laid out did me a huge service. I’ve been reaching for some of those things, not being able to articulate them, but you have, beautifully, and I’m grateful.

    The core class where I completed my BA was Human Ecology, taught by Richard Heinberg, in 2001. Seventeen years later, I’m still having “aha!” moments from what he taught, from lectures I always wanted to record, but never did. But human ecology isn’t environmental education. Reading your stuff teaches me why it’s not. Thanks for doing what you do. I read your new stuff as soon as I find it in my inbox. This piece of work touched that place inside me I want to keep alive. You help me. Bless you.

    1. Hi Tommy: I am VERY grateful to you for taking the time to make your comments regarding my essay. The most important guide to my writing of essays is reader feedback. It tells me that people are reading my essays and it tells me if my message is getting across. Comments also serve as a dialog for all of us to hone our ideas. THe subject of conservation is “ruled” by a group of “elite” scientists and the government. But yet, these people are not in tune with the systems thinking that has represented a major productive paradigm shift in modern science over 50 years. Sadly, much of systems science is not taught in college level natural sciences curricula. And, most certainly, systems science is not practiced by the people who are subjects of my recent essay. But yet, everything on Earth is interdependent. Nothing lives in isolation. I am particularly impressed by your enthusiasm in involving your family as you oversee your plot of land. Involving your children means that you are building your legacy in a positive and practical way. We need many more people like you if we are to restore a “connectivity consciousness” within the human race. Thank you again !!!!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.